There is indeed a Taxpayer Bill of rights and you can access it here on the IRS website. There are ten components of your taxpayer bill of rights. I believe that the most important right is your right to be informed.
Per the IRS
Taxpayers have the right to know what they need to do to comply with the tax laws. They are entitled to clear explanations of the laws and IRS procedures in all tax forms, instructions, publications, notices, and correspondence. They have the right to be informed of IRS decisions about their tax accounts and to receive clear explanations of the outcomes.